This is a summary of Chapter 2 in a textbook that was required for my Master's Degree at Marian University. I was responsible for sharing the basic elements of Chapter 2.

CHAPTER 2 - Providing Feedback

Feedback is "the most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement. The simplest prescription for improving education must be 'dollops' of feedback." (John Hattie, Harvard researcher)

21st Century Skill → Providing Feedback
Focus → Formative Assessment: giving students information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning goal so that they can improve their practice.

McREL's 4 Generalizations about feedback
1. Feedback should be corrective in nature.
2. Feedback should be timely.
3. Feedback should be specific to a criterion.
4. Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.

Recommendations based on these generalizations
1. Use criterion-referenced feedback.
2. Focus feedback on specific types of knowledge.
3. Use student-led feedback.

How do teachers incorporation technology-based activities in their curriculum to fulfill these recommendations?

Word Processing Applications

Microsoft Word - Track Changes and Insert Comments ​
Microsoft Word - Flesch-Kincaid Readability Scale

Data Collection Tools

Automated Classroom Response Systems, a.k.a. Student Response Systems.

Systems available:

How do Automated Classroom Response Systems work?
1. Clicker
2. M/C Questions
3. Time Limit
4. Anonymous Responses
5. Immediate and Specific Feedback
6. Teacher Reports: Instructor Summary, Question Report, Study Guide

Grading Software
Vantage Learning
Educational Testing Service

Web Resources
(includes on-line quizzes, games, and simulations)

Communication Software__
  • Blogs -"Web log" - Example: Poetry journal blog
  • Wikis
High School Online Collaborative Writing -
Wikispaces -
Peanut Butter Wiki -

  • E-mail
  • Instant Messaging
  • Video Conferencing